What Foods Contain Selenium?


Selenium is an essential trace element that plays a crucial role in human health. It is a nutrient with diverse functions in the body, ranging from antioxidant protection to supporting thyroid function. While selenium deficiency is a concern in some parts of the world, many foods contain this vital element in varying amounts.

In this comprehensive article, we will explore the world of selenium-rich foods, both plant-based and animal-based sources, to help you understand how to incorporate this essential nutrient into your diet. We will also delve into the importance of selenium, its recommended daily intake, and potential health benefits.

Understanding Selenium: An Essential Trace Element

Selenium is a chemical element with the atomic number 34 and the symbol Se on the periodic table. It was discovered in 1817 by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius. While it is considered a trace element because it is required in very small amounts, selenium is essential for human health.

The Role of Selenium in the Body

Selenium is involved in various physiological processes, and it serves several crucial functions in the human body:

  • Antioxidant Defense: Selenium is a component of selenoproteins, which act as antioxidants. These proteins help protect cells from oxidative damage caused by free radicals, reducing the risk of chronic diseases like cancer and heart disease.
  • Thyroid Function: Selenium is necessary for the conversion of thyroid hormones (T4 to T3) and helps regulate thyroid function. This, in turn, impacts metabolism and overall energy levels.
  • Immune System Support: Selenium plays a role in the functioning of the immune system, helping the body combat infections and illnesses.
  • DNA Synthesis and Repair: Selenium is involved in DNA synthesis and repair, essential for the maintenance of genetic material and overall cellular health.
  • Reproductive Health: Adequate selenium levels are important for reproductive health in both men and women. It contributes to the production of healthy sperm and may play a role in female fertility.

Selenium Deficiency: Causes and Consequences

Selenium deficiency can have serious health consequences. It may result from various factors, including:

  • Low Dietary Intake: In regions with selenium-poor soils, locally grown foods may have low selenium content, leading to dietary deficiencies.
  • Gastrointestinal Disorders: Some gastrointestinal conditions, such as Crohn’s disease or celiac disease, can impair selenium absorption.
  • Medications: Certain medications, such as antacids and some cancer treatments, can interfere with selenium absorption or increase its excretion.
  • Increased Needs: Pregnant and breastfeeding women, as well as individuals with certain health conditions, may require higher selenium intake.
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Consequences of selenium deficiency can include:

  • Weak Immune System: Selenium deficiency can weaken the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to infections.
  • Thyroid Dysfunction: Insufficient selenium can lead to thyroid problems and disruptions in metabolic function.
  • Cognitive Decline: Some research suggests that selenium deficiency may be associated with cognitive decline and neurological disorders.
  • Infertility: Inadequate selenium levels can affect fertility in both men and women.

It’s important to maintain an adequate intake of selenium to prevent these potential health issues.

Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) of Selenium

The recommended daily allowance (RDA) of selenium varies depending on age, sex, and life stage. The values are typically measured in micrograms (mcg) or micrograms per day (mcg/day). Here are the general RDAs for selenium:

  • Infants:
    • 0-6 months: 15 mcg/day
    • 7-12 months: 20 mcg/day
  • Children:
    • 1-3 years: 20 mcg/day
    • 4-8 years: 30 mcg/day
    • 9-13 years: 40 mcg/day
  • Adolescents and Adults:
    • Males and females (14 years and older): 55 mcg/day
  • Pregnancy:
    • Adolescents (14-18 years): 60 mcg/day
    • Adults (19 years and older): 70 mcg/day
  • Lactation:
    • Adolescents (14-18 years): 70 mcg/day
    • Adults (19 years and older): 75 mcg/day

Please note that these values are general guidelines, and individual selenium needs may vary based on factors like overall health and dietary choices.

Selenium-Rich Foods: Plant-Based Sources

Selenium is present in various foods, both of plant and animal origin. Plant-based sources of selenium include:

Brazil Nuts

Brazil nuts are renowned for their exceptionally high selenium content. Just one Brazil nut can provide more than 100% of the daily recommended intake of selenium. However, it’s crucial to consume them in moderation, as excessive selenium intake can have adverse effects.

Sunflower Seeds

Sunflower seeds are a tasty and nutritious snack that contains selenium. They are also rich in healthy fats, fiber, and other essential nutrients.

Brown Rice

Brown rice is a whole grain that contains selenium. It is a healthier alternative to white rice because it retains the bran layer, which is where many nutrients, including selenium, are concentrated.

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Spinach is a green leafy vegetable that contains selenium, albeit in smaller amounts compared to Brazil nuts. It is also a great source of vitamins and minerals.

Whole Wheat Bread

Whole wheat bread made from whole grains contains selenium. It is a healthier choice than bread made from refined grains, which have had most of their nutrients removed.

These plant-based sources of selenium can be incorporated into various meals and snacks to help meet your daily selenium needs.

Selenium-Rich Foods: Animal-Based Sources

Animal-based sources of selenium include:

Lean Meats (Turkey, Chicken, Beef)

Lean meats such as turkey, chicken, and beef are good sources of selenium. They are also excellent sources of high-quality protein.

Seafood (Tuna, Halibut, Shrimp)

Certain seafood options, including tuna, halibut, and shrimp, contain selenium. Seafood also provides essential omega-3 fatty acids and other nutrients.


Eggs are a versatile food that contains selenium. They are a valuable source of protein and essential amino acids.

Dairy Products (Milk, Yogurt)

Dairy products like milk and yogurt contain selenium, along with calcium and other essential nutrients.

These animal-based sources of selenium can be part of a balanced diet that provides the necessary selenium intake for optimal health.

Selenium Content in Common Foods

To give you a better idea of the selenium content in common foods, here are approximate microgram (mcg) amounts of selenium per 100 grams (3.5 ounces) of selected items:

  • Brazil nuts: 1917 mcg
  • Sunflower seeds: 79 mcg
  • Brown rice: 10 mcg
  • Spinach: 1 mcg
  • Whole wheat bread: 21 mcg
  • Turkey (cooked, breast meat): 30 mcg
  • Chicken (cooked, breast meat): 27 mcg
  • Beef (cooked, lean cuts): 25 mcg
  • Tuna (cooked): 92 mcg
  • Halibut (cooked): 47 mcg
  • Shrimp (cooked): 36 mcg
  • Eggs: 15 mcg
  • Milk: 4 mcg
  • Yogurt: 14 mcg

These values can help you plan your diet to include selenium-rich foods that meet your individual nutritional needs.

Factors Affecting Selenium Levels in Foods

The selenium content in foods can be influenced by several factors, including:

  • Soil Selenium Levels: The selenium content of plants depends on the selenium concentration in the soil where they are grown. Regions with selenium-rich soils tend to produce crops with higher selenium content.
  • Plant Variety: Different plant varieties have varying abilities to accumulate selenium from the soil. Some plant species are better selenium accumulators than others.
  • Animal Diet: The selenium content in animal-based foods can be influenced by the selenium content in the feed given to livestock.
  • Processing and Cooking: The way foods are processed and cooked can impact their selenium content. For example, boiling can cause some selenium to leach into cooking water.
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Being aware of these factors can help you make informed choices when selecting selenium-rich foods.

Selenium Supplements: When Are They Necessary?

In most cases, it is possible to meet your selenium needs through a balanced diet that includes selenium-rich foods. Selenium supplements are generally unnecessary for individuals with a varied and nutritious diet. In fact, excessive selenium intake from supplements can lead to toxicity.

However, certain populations may benefit from selenium supplements under medical supervision, including:

  • Individuals with medical conditions that impair selenium absorption or increase its excretion.
  • Pregnant and breastfeeding women with low dietary selenium intake.
  • People living in regions with severe selenium deficiency and limited access to selenium-rich foods.

Before considering selenium supplements, it is advisable to consult with a healthcare professional to determine whether they are necessary for your specific situation.

Health Benefits of Selenium

Selenium offers several potential health benefits, including:

  • Antioxidant Protection: Selenium’s role in selenoproteins helps protect cells from oxidative damage, potentially reducing the risk of chronic diseases like cancer and heart disease.
  • Thyroid Function: Adequate selenium supports thyroid function, which can help regulate metabolism and energy levels.
  • Immune System Support: Selenium is essential for a healthy immune system, helping the body defend against infections and illnesses.
  • Reproductive Health: Selenium may play a role in male and female fertility and reproductive health.
  • Cognitive Health: Some research suggests that selenium may have a protective effect on cognitive function, potentially reducing the risk of cognitive decline.

It’s important to note that while selenium is beneficial, excessive intake can lead to adverse effects. A balanced diet that includes selenium-rich foods is generally the best way to obtain these benefits without the risk of toxicity.

Selenium Toxicity: Risks and Symptoms

Selenium toxicity, also known as selenosis, is a rare condition but can occur with excessive selenium intake. Symptoms of selenium toxicity may include:

  • Gastrointestinal Issues: These can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.
  • Hair and Nail Changes: Brittle hair and nails or hair loss can occur in cases of severe selenium toxicity.
  • Neurological Symptoms: In extreme cases, neurological symptoms such as numbness, tremors, and difficulty in walking can occur.
  • Respiratory Distress: Acute selenium toxicity can lead to severe respiratory distress.

Toxicity is unlikely to result from dietary sources of selenium alone. It is more commonly associated with excessive selenium supplementation. If you suspect selenium toxicity, seek medical attention immediately.

Selenium is an essential trace element that plays a vital role in various aspects of human health. A balanced diet that includes selenium-rich foods, both of plant and animal origin, can help you meet your daily selenium needs and enjoy its potential health benefits without the risk of toxicity. Understanding the sources of selenium and their nutritional content can empower you to make informed dietary choices that support your well-being.

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